Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world.

The role of the apolipoprotein e4 allele in moderating cognitive and neuroanatomical degeneration following repeated traumatic brain injury is controversial.

Professional boxing can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a variant of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Headache is certainly one of the most common medical complaints of general population and one of the important causes of consumption of drugs.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a crucially important public health problem around the world, which gives rise to increased mortality and is the leading cause of physical and psychological disability in young adults, in particular.

The authors used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active) (mean age=45.7 years, SD=9.71) and nine participants (mean age=43.44, SD=9.11) in non-combative sports.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. Until recently, TBI has been recognized as an uncommon cause of hypopituitarism.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a distinct pattern of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Thought to be caused by repetitive concussive and subconcussive injuries, CTE is considered largely preventable. The majority of neuropathologically confirmed cases have occurred in professional contact sport athletes (eg, boxing, football).