Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion.

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This study examined the effects of antioxidant vitamins, ibuprofen, cold water submersion, and whey protein administered simultaneously on short-term recovery.

Cold water immersion (CWI) is a technique commonly used in post-exercise recovery. However, the procedures involved in the technique may vary, particularly in terms of water temperature and immersion time, and the most effective approach remains unclear.