Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training.

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It has been proposed that skeletal muscle shows signs of resistance training (RT)-induced muscle hypertrophy much earlier (i.e., ~3–4 weeks of RT) than previously thought. We determined if early increases in whole muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) during a period of RT were concomitant with edematous muscle swelling and thus not completely attributable to hypertrophy.

Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations.