Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes.


Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is associated with a self-perceived lack of size and muscularity, and is characterized by a preoccupation with and pursuit of a hyper-mesomorphic body.

Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined.

The overarching aim of this study was to compare volume-equated high-repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPHR) versus a low-repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPLR) program for muscle performance.

In the present study, it was assumed that a decrease in aggressive feelings is stronger with movements that are unlike aggressive actions compared with those that are similar to aggressive actions.

The combination of aerobic and resistance training (AER + RES) is recommended by almost every major organization to improve health-related risk factors associated with sedentary behavior.

This study aimed to analyze changes of neuromuscular, physiological and perceptual markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in high-resistance strength training.